Oncolytic virus immunotherapy is a therapeutic approach to cancer treatment that utilizes native or genetically modified viruses that selectively replicate within tumor cells. Insights into the mechanisms of viral entry, replication, induction and/or suppression of immune responses and lytic versus latent infections have led to an intense interest in utilizing viruses for the treatment of human diseases and have been used to select oncolytic vectors for the treatment of specific types of cancers. In contrast to standard viral-based ‘vaccines’, oncolytic viruses directly infect and lyse tumor cells in situ. They do not necessarily require defined antigens to be included in the vector as tumor-associated antigens may be released by dying tumor cells. Oncolytic viruses can also provide additional danger signals that can promote an efficient antitumor immune response. Although incompletely understood, oncolytic viruses are thought to mediate antitumor activity through two distinct mechanisms of action: selective replication within neoplastic cells, resulting in a direct lytic effect on tumor cells; and induction of systemic antitumor immunity. The relative contribution of these mechanisms may differ depending on the nature and type of cancer cell, the characteristics of the viral vector, and the interaction between the virus, tumor microenvironment and host immune system.
Modifying oncolytic viruses to produce effective cancer therapies is challenging as encoding transgenes often attenuates virus activity or prevents systemic delivery in patients due to the risk of off-target expression of transgenes in healthy tissues. A number of oncolytic strategies are rapidly advancing toward clinical use with the requirement to test functional activity, specificity and safety. QVirusTM Platform offers a variety of oncolytic virus assays services to test the virus functional activity. Our oncolytic virus assays include but are not limited to plaque purification assay, replication assay, identity assay, transgene expression assay, tumor lytic assay, and transgene functional assay.
QVirusTM Platform has continued to evolve services to be able to provide a coordinated package of virology, immunology, and tumor biology services to support even the most ambitious oncolytic virus development program. If you have any special requirements, please feel free to contact us.
1. KAUFMAN, Howard L.; KOHLHAPP, Frederick J.; ZLOZA, Andrew. Oncolytic viruses: a new class of immunotherapy drugs. Nature reviews Drug discovery, 2015, 14.9: 642.